Which Romance language sounds more Slavic?

ravinescu   Sun May 16, 2010 8:44 am GMT
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Quote from: Franco
Ravinescu is owned by the spirit of Dracula right now.
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Dracula is indeed related to this propaganda story, and I will explain how. The home of Dracula was Transylvania, so we must look after his spirit in the strategy used by the Transylvanian School, the politico-cultural movement from the 19th century who fabricated the fake romanian indentity that is spread using propaganda. Latinism was resuscitated from its grave and transformed into an intellectual form of vampirism. The members of the Transylvanian School were mindsucking vampires, who sucked the minds of their victims and inoculated propaganda into their brains. Just like a person who is bitten by a bloodsucking vampire becomes a vampire, a person that is brainwashed by a propagandist becomes also a propagandist.

This was the strategy devised by the Transylvanian School and it really worked. In those times many transylvanian intellectuals went to Wallachia and Moldavia to seek for intellectual victims, ready to be brainwashed and transformed into vectors of the latinist propaganda. The result was above expectations, many wallachian and moldavian intellectuals becoming latinist vampires themselves, but it was not enough. These transylvanian intellectuals, alongside their recent victims, created the Romanian Academic Society, later known as the Romanian Academy. By doing this, they gained access to the money offered by the state, that they used to launch a large-scale operation of latinist vampirism in the schools. The romanian children are taught not to think by themselves in matters related to romanian history and language, but instead to accept the brainwashing done with the official mindsucking propaganda. These children, who later become adults, act like dumb cerebral terminals connected to the "undermind" of the RAP (Romanian Academy of Propaganda), spreading the lies that they are continously fed. Romania is not only the country of Dracula, but also the country of Propagandracula, the mindsucking propaganda vampire!

How can you transform a dumb and aggressive Propagandracula into a thinking and gentle human being? It's very simple, by awakening the person from its intellectual sleep. For that to happen, you must drive a stack (not a stake) of history and linguistics books through his head.
ravinescu   Sun May 16, 2010 8:48 am GMT
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Quote from: Anonymous romanian
Somehow, even when someone didn't bring up anything to argue with him, he still managed to find enough info to fill a whole page and somehow relate it to the "propanda" spiel haha.
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It's not a "spiel", it is a debunking of the 200-years old romanian propaganda, that persists even today, because it continues to be spread by the romanian educational system. Just read the article posted below, who was published in the romanian newspaper "Cotidianul", if you want to see the opinions of some well-known romanian intellectuals about the identity-related romanian propaganda. You will not laugh anymore after reading it...

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Ce Mai Rămīne din Miturile Fondatoare ale Romānilor
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Latinitatea, dacismul, ruralitatea, poetul naţional ş.a...
Pentru cultura noastră, ele au valoare de mituri īntemeietoare, iar influenţa lor la nivel popular e īncă puternică.
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Sīnt lucruri pe care le īnvăţăm la şcoală şi ni se par apoi de la sine īnţelese: noi, romānii, sīntem o insulă de latinitate īntr-o mare slavă, dar şi urmaşii dacilor, cei mai viteji şi mai drepţi dintre traci. Spiritualitatea romānească īşi are rădăcinile la sat. Avem un cult pentru Eminescu, poetul nostru nepereche, considerat un sfīnt. Sīntem blīnzi şi toleranţi că nimeni alţii.

"Miturile fondatoare ale culturii noastre sīnt legate de o formă de romantism naţionalist, care a īnsoţit şi a completat formarea statului modern romān. Mecanismele de consacrare sīnt şcoala şi toate instanţele de producere şi autoreproducere ale elitelor culturale, de la asociaţiile de scriitori, la gazetele literare", spune politologul Cristian Preda.

Discuţia despre miturile legitimatoare ale naţiunii romāne şi substanţa acestora a fost īncepută īn anii 1990, o dată cu publicarea cărţilor lui Lucian Boia. Volumele istoricului au provocat scandal pentru că prezentau o abordare nemaiīntīlnită pīnă atunci: deconstruirea unor mitologii care erau general acceptate de către comunitatea romānească.

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Urmaşii Romei
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Ideea trecutului "imperial" al romānilor a apărut dinaintea perioadei moderne a ţării. "Romānii toţi de la Rīm se trag", a spus cronicarul, iar invocarea acestei origini nobile, cīnd Ţara Romānească şi Moldova erau supuse Imperiului Otoman, iar Transilvania celui Habsburgic, a īnceput să joace rolul unei revanşe istorice īn faţa celor puternici, dar cu strămoşi mai umili. "Aceasta mitologie a originilor s-a manifestat la noi foarte intens pentru că ea compensează o serie de complexe de inferioritate faţă de puterile din jur", afirmă istoricul Lucian Boia. "Ea a reprezentat o soluţie pentru a ridica spaţiul romānesc la o nobleţe a originilor. Mitul fondator al latinităţii a fost consacrat de Şcoală Ardeleană īn secolul 18. De aici s-a ajuns la ideea că sīntem nu numai descendenţi ai romanilor, ci continuatori ai istoriei acestora."

Invocarea originii latine a avut şi o importanţă politică īn secolul 19, īn procesul de modernizare a ţării. "Vasile Pīrvan spunea că ceea ce s-a aflat la originea culturii romāne moderne a fost «ideea de Roma». Adică un mit al originii, Mitul Strămoşului, ca să spunem aşa, pe care īl găsim la īntemeierea tuturor aşa-numitelor «naţiuni etnice». Pentru a ne asigura modernitatea īn viitor, a trebuit să ne găsim un strămoş īn trecut, iar Traian a fost doar unul dintre ei. Au urmat apoi şi alţii, esenţial fiind aici mitul īntemeietor al Strămoşului şi doar mai apoi cine anume este acest «strămoş»", spune antropologul Vintilă Mihăilescu.

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Cei mai viteji şi mai drepţi dintre traci
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Īn mitologia originilor romāneşti, romanii au un concurent puternic: dacii. Popularitatea dacismului este explicabilă şi prin faptul că nu există prea multe informaţii despre aceşti strămoşi ai noştri şi, ca atare, ei pot fi invocaţi pentru aproape orice.

"Celălalt mit al originilor noastre se referă la īntoarcerea spre zona autohtonă, raportarea la daci că strămoşi ai noştri. Ca şi īn cazul romanilor, privirea aceasta insistentă spre trecut a apărut din dorinţa de a ridica īn rang un prezent nesatisfacator", este de părere Lucian Boia.

La rīndul său, istoricul Zoe Petre explică mecanismul de consacrare a acestei mitologii: "Originile noastre trebuie să fie obligatoriu «nobile» şi «pure», fie că e vorba despre originea latină, de cea dacică, de cea creştină sau chiar ortodoxă: puţini ar accepta să-şi imagineze poporul romān ca rezultat al unor metisaje complexe şi repetate, īn pofida faptului că asemenea amestecuri etno-lingvistice şi culturale trebuie să fi fost extrem de active īn trecut, ca să nu mai vorbesc de prezent".

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Sentimentul romānesc al fiinţei
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Un alt mit consacrat de multă vreme īn mentalul romānesc este cel al excepţionalităţii poporului nostru. El īşi are rădăcinile īn perioada romantică: "Această preocupare persistentă pentru psihologia naţională -- īn măsură să stīrnească mirarea occidentalilor -- provine dintr-o pseudoştiinţă caracteristică secolului 19, care s-a transmis la noi mai mult prin īncercările de a-l defini pe romān că pe o fiinţă aparte. De aici teme care au devenit puncte de referinţă ale acestui discurs, cum ar fi «spaţiul mioritic», la Lucian Blaga, sau «sentimentul romānesc al fiinţei», la [Constantin] Noica. De aici şi reprezentarea despre noi ca «o punte īntre Est şi Vest», neaparţinīnd nici unuia dintre aceste spaţii. Adevărul este, bineīnţeles, că nu reprezentăm un grup monolitic, sīntem de tot felul, cum sīnt şi celelalte popoare", spune Lucian Boia.

Adesea, această imagine a romānilor ca popor ieşit din comun a avut rolul de a ne diferenţia de popoarele din jur, cu destin asemănător, şi de a ne apropia de Vest: "Marea noastră tradiţie culturală (deosebită de mică tradiţie rurală) se bazează şi ea pe o reprezentare socială autoflatantă, aceea a unei relaţii bilaterale excepţionale īntre noi şi Occident, care caută să minimalizeze celelalte culturi mici, vecine nouă, şi să ne plaseze pe noi īntr-o lumină specială", crede politologul Alina Mungiu-Pippidi.

"Din zorii modernităţii, noi ne-am raportat la modele centrale, cum au fost cel francez şi cel german, ne-am comparat cu cei mari, nu cu vecinii, şi cred că acesta este un viciu de pornire al culturii romāne moderne", spune şi criticul literar Paul Cernat.

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De strajă Europei
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"Aţi avut timp să vă construiţi catedrale pentru că noi v-am apărat de turci". Această afirmaţie tranşantă, de fapt un reproş adresat Occidentului, s-a constituit la rīndul său īn mit īntemeietor, adesea legat de excepţionalismul romānesc sau de rolul nostru de perpetuă victimă a istoriei. Romānii nu sīnt singurii care au īmbrăţişat acest mod de a se raporta la sine. "Mitul santinelei de strajă are un corespondent puternic şi īn miturile vecinilor -- unguri, polonezi, sīrbi. El ascunde un complex pe care īl īmpărtăşim cu aceste popoare, miturile de compensaţie specifice unor ţări mici. Miturile marilor puteri sīnt diferite, ele afirmă o superioritate directă", spune eseistul Andrei Cornea.

"Un sindrom corelat este cel pe care l-aş numi cu vorbele poetului «sărăcia şi nevoile şi neamul». Sīntem «īn calea răutăţilor», o răscruce crucificată şi martirizată. Sărăcia noastră se deosebeşte de oricare alta, nu are nimic de-a face nici cu lenea, nici cu nepriceperea, e o fatalitate impusă totdeauna de Celălalt -- de la turci la sovietici sau la «imperialismul predator» al mărilor puteri -- dar e asumata īn deplină şi orgolioasă deliberare ca o formă superioară de asceză. Autocompasiunea este o constantă a bovarismului romānesc dintotdeauna", afirmă Zoe Petre.

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Veşnicia s-a născut la sat
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Spiritualitatea romānească este rurală sau, conform formulei consacrate, "eminamente agrară". Mitul ruralităţii, care porneşte de la faptul evident că societatea romānească a avut o structură preponderent ţărănească, a ajuns să opună satul, văzut ca depozitar al tuturor virtuţilor, oraşului, perceput ca un loc al corupţiei şi īnstrăinării de ţară. Conflictul dintre autohtonişti şi "moderniştii" cosmopoliţi străbate īntreaga cultura romānă modernă, pīnă īn zilele noastre.

"Romania are, ca toate societăţile rurale, o mică tradiţie cuprinsă īn felul de viaţă tradiţional rural, şi o mare tradiţie, care se identifică cu o cultură naţională, aceea creată īn afară satelor. Păşuniştii romāni, categoria cea mai vastă la noi, asemenea lui Lucian Blaga, aveau o reprezentare a micii tradiţii drept cultura naţională romānă. Tradiţia merge īn linie dreaptă, pīnă la Muzeul Ţăranului Romān conceput de Horia Bernea", afirmă Alina Mungiu-Pippidi.

Comunismul a īncercat să curme această identificare a romānilor cu ruralul: "Mitul ruralităţii a fost īnlocuit brutal īn perioada comunismului cu mitul muncitorului industrial, mai ales īn anii 1950", spune Lucian Boia.

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Eminescu să ne judece!
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Mihai Eminescu nu este numai poetul naţional sau "omul deplin al culturii romāne". El a ajuns să fie numit, īntr-un şlagăr popular după Revoluţie, venit din Basarabia, "Domnul cel de mīntuirea noastra", chemat să-i judece pe romāni ca un Mesia. Cum s-a ajuns aici?

"Eminescu constituie mitul central pe care īl cunoaştem astăzi, pentru că personalitatea lui este legată de mitul intemeietorului", este de părere Paul Cernat. "Figurile de īntemeietori, cei care au avut prioritate, chiar dacă au mai puţină substanţă decīt cei care i-au urmat, sīnt venerate la noi. Un exemplu este cel al lui Vasile Cīrlova, īntemeietor al poeziei romantice la romāni, care este inferior majorităţii poeţilor care au venit după el, dar faţă de care are un rol mult mai important īn istoriile literare. Mitul īntemeietorului, al ctitorului, este dominant īn literatura noastră şi ascunde şi un complex al culturii minore, marginale", opinează Paul Cernat.

Cultul romānilor pentru Eminescu, paralel cu prea puţina lui īnţelegere peste hotare, a scos la iveală o altă frustrare autohtonă, "nerecunoaşterea valorilor noastre", pe care o invocă şi unii autori de astăzi. "Autorul genial adulat de o societate perfect solidară şi care, cu toate acestea, rămīne nerecunoscut peste hotare, drept pentru care apare lamentaţia că nu e tradus şi citit pe mapamond, iată portretul exemplar al omului de cultură romān. Altfel spus: miturile noastre nu sīnt legate de un conţinut cultural, ci de un statut. Ele tematizează nu un eveniment fondator, ci o dramă a actualităţii", afirmă Cristian Preda.

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Mitologia romānească şi integrarea europeană
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Romānia a devenit de curīnd membră a Uniunii Europene, iar sute de mii de romāni deja lucrează şi trăiesc īn spaţiul comunitar. Vor trece oare reprezentările despre noi īnşine şi despre ceilalţi printr-un proces de transformare?

"Miturile nu dispar atīt de simplu, pentru că sīnt consubstanţiale cu fiinţa omenească, se schimbă sau īşi schimbă īnfăţişarea, dar rămīn ascunse īn subconştientul colectiv, asemenea rīurilor care curg cīnd la suprafaţă, cīnd īn adīncuri", crede Andrei Cornea. "Ele pot fi dăunătoare cīnd īmpiedica reflecţia critică, dar aceeaşi reflecţie critică trebuie să accepte că fac parte din substanţa umană şi nu pot fi controlate, cum este cazul religiei."

"Sīnt destul de sceptic īn legătură cu felul īn care viitorul european al Romāniei poate schimba această stare de lucruri. Cred că integrarea europeană, pe termen scurt cel puţin, va duce la o acutizare a complexelor. Noi aşteptăm ca ajutorul să vină din afară, aşteptăm prea mult de la un «tătuc». Exemplul cel mai grăitor este cel din viaţa politică, īn care lucrurile, contrar a ceea ce aşteptăm cu toţii, au degenerat", afirmă Paul Cernat.

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Romania - Fabulospirit
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Campaniile publicitare pentru promovarea imaginii Romāniei suferă de acelaşi viciu, crede Lucian Boia: se adresează unei mitologii pe īnţelesul romānilor, dar fără sens pentru străini, cei care sīnt invitaţi să ne "recunoască".

"Frustrarea legată de nerecunoaşterea valorilor noastre a dus la soluţii rizibile, de genul «Eterna şi fascinanta Romānie» şi această poveste bizară a lui «Fabulospirit», tactici care nu sīnt excesiv de inteligente, ca să mă exprim elegant. Ele pornesc de la o aparentă nedreptate care ni se face. Este aici un factor pentru care noi sīntem responsabili, şi anume că, pornind de la acest interes pentru specificul naţional şi «excepţionalitatea» noastră, promovăm subiecte care nu sīnt interesante pentru alţii."

La rīndul său, Alina Mungiu-Pippidi crede că populaţia este mai pragmatică īn această privinţă decīt o anumită parte a elitei culturale: "Aceste reprezentări deja sīnt la timpul trecut pentru majoritatea populaţiei. Mai există grupuri cu iluzii autohtoniste şi de grandoare care cheltuiesc banii publici pentru a traduce opere care nu interesează pe nimeni īn restul lumii sau cred că e misiunea noastră să recreştinăm Europa. Ponderea lor īn cultura romānă e īncă disproporţionată īn favoarea lor, dar cred că se va menţine īncă o vreme din cauza mecanismului care face că intelectualii europeni să plece din ţară, iar cei autohtonişti să rămīnă aici", este de părere politologul.

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Vodă cel bun vs. boierii cei răi, de la Cuza la Traian Băsescu
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Un mit durabil şi cu rezonanţă īn mentalul romānesc īl reprezintă cel al voievodului bun, părinte al poporului, īn conflict cu boierii cei răi, care īncearcă să-i zădărnicească intenţiile lăudabile. El a fost folosit de conducătorii europeni īncă de la sfīrşitul Evului Mediu, cīnd regii īncepeau să aibă dispute deschise cu nobilimea, pe măsură ce puterea devenea tot mai centralizată. Īn acest gen de conflicte īi ştim implicaţi şi pe Ştefan cel Mare şi pe Mihai Viteazul, iar forţa acestei idei a continuat să influenţeze şi perioada modernă a Romāniei. "Un mit care funcţionează şi astăzi este cel al conducătorului īn relaţii de ostilitate cu boierii, cu nobilii, cu «oligarhia». Este foarte răspīndit, recognoscibil īn multe situaţii, chiar Machiavelli īl sfătuia pe prinţ să facă o alianţă cu poporul, nu cu nobilii", explică Andrei Cornea. "Exemplele sīnt destule, pot fi amintiţi toţi voievozii cunoscuţi, de altfel acest antagonism cu boierii, cu nobilii, este răspīndit īn toată zona sud-est europeană. Vedem această luptă cu «oligarhia locală» la Al.I. Cuza, la Carol I, iar acum cel care joacă acest rol şi are succes este Băsescu. Nu discut acum de partea cui este dreptatea īn această dispută, dar Traian Băsescu substanţiază un mit puternic, acela că mai degrabă vodă este cel bun, decīt boierii."

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Ceauşescu, manipulatorul de mituri
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Reprezentările cu valoare mitologică ale romānilor au fost folosite īn scopuri politice de mulţi lideri şi īn diferite perioade istorice. Uneori, cu intenţii bune, atunci cīnd a fost nevoie de mobilizare populară pentru atingerea unui obiectiv important pentru naţiunea romānă, cum s-a īntīmplat īn perioada modernizării ţării. Alteori īnsă, politicieni fără scrupule le-au folosit īn scopuri malefice. Exemple ar fi Ion Antonescu şi Carol al II-lea, dar cel care a reuşit să folosească magistral mitologia romānească pentru consolidarea propriei puteri a fost Nicolae Ceauşescu, iar consecinţele le simţim şi astăzi. El a folosit, pe rīnd, şi mitul latinităţii, şi pe cel al autohtonismului dacic, īn funcţie de interesele politice de moment şi ştiind foarte bine ce rezonanţă puternică au acestea īn mentalul colectiv romānesc. "Cīnd Ceauşescu a avut nevoie, īn anii 1965-1968, de legitimare naţională, a ţinut să accentueze mitul latinităţii, pentru că «insula de latinitate» ne scotea din marea slavă -- URSS. Mai tīrziu, cīnd ideea de independenţă şi autonomie a ajuns să-l obsedeze, a folosit mitul autohtonismului -- dacismul, tracismul. Ceauşescu constituie cazul cel mai clar -- deşi nu e singular -- al folosirii miturilor īn scopuri politice, după cum īi dictau interesele de moment", explică Andrei Cornea.

http://tinyurl.com/romanian-founding-myths
(adresă scurtată către articolul postat pe internet)
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ravinescu   Sun May 16, 2010 8:50 am GMT
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English translation:

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What Remains from the Founding Myths of Romanians
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Latinity, dacianism, rurality, the national poet, etc...
For our culture, they have the value of founding myths, and their influence, at a popular level, is still strong.
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There are things that we learn in school and after that they go without saying: we, the romanians, are a latin island in a slavic sea, but also the descendants of the dacians, who were the most brave and righteous of all the thracians. The romanian spirituality has its roots in the village [in the rural space]. We have a cult for Eminescu, our unmatched poet, considered a saint. We are mild and tolerant like no other.

"The founding myths of our culture are linked to a form of romantic nationalism, which accompanied and complemented the formation of the romanian modern state. The implementing mechanisms are the schools and all the instances of production and reproduction of the cultural elites, form the associations of writers, to the literary magazines", says the political scientist Cristian Preda.

The discussion about the legitimizing myths of the romanian nation and their substance has begun in the years 1990s, at the same time as the publishing of the books of Lucian Boia. The tomes of the historian provoked a scandal because they put forward an approach that was unprecedented until then: the deconstruction of some mythologies that were generally accepted by the romanian community.

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Heirs of Rome
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The idea of the "imperial" past of romanians appeared before the modern times of the country. "All the romanians descend from Rome", said the chronicler [Grigore Ureche (1590 - 1647)], and invoking this noble origin, at a time when Wallachia and Moldavia were subdued to the Ottoman Empire, and Transylvania to the Habsburg Empire, began to play the role of a historical retaliation against the stronger peoples, that had more humble ancestors. "This mythology of origins had manifested itself very strongly here, because it compensated a series of inferiority complexes toward the neighbouring powers", affirms the historian Lucian Boia. "It represented a solution to lift the romanian space to a nobility of the origins. The founding myth of latinity was established by the Transylvanian School in the 18th century. From then it got up to the idea that we are not only the descendants of romans, but also the continuators of their history."

The invocation of the latin origin had also a political importance in the 19th century, in the process of modernizing the country. "Vasile Pīrvan [a romanian historian from the 20th century] said that at the origin of the modern romanian culture was «the idea of Rome». That means a myth of the origin, a Myth of the Ancestor, to put it like this, which is present at the foundation of all the so-called «ethnic nations». In order to secure our modernity in the future, we had to find ancestors in the past, and Trajan [the roman emperor] was only one of them. Others followed, the essential thing being here the founding myth of the Ancestor, and only after that who is precisely this «ancestor»", says the anthropologist Vintilă Mihăilescu.

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The most brave and righteous of the thracians
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In the mythology of the romanian origins, the romans have a powerful adversary: the dacians. The popularity of dacianism can also be explained by the fact that there are not many informations about these ancestors and, consequently, they can be invoked for almost anything.

"The other myth of our origins is about the return toward the autochtonous area, the reference to dacians as our ancestors. Like in the situation of romans, this persistent look toward the past has emerged from the desire to elevate in rank an unsatisfying present", believes Lucian Boia.

The historian Zoe Petre explains the validation mechanism of this mythology: "Our origins must imperatively be «noble» and «pure», regardless of the fact that it's about the latin origin, the dacian origin, the christian or even orthodox origin: few would accept to envision the romanian people as a result of complicated and repeated crossbreedings, in spite of the fact that such ethno-linguistic and cultural mixtures were probably very active in the past, not to speak of the present".

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The romanian feeling of the being
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Another myth that is established from a long time ago in the romanian mind is the one about the exceptionalness of our people. It has the roots in the romantic period: "This persistent preoccuppation for the national psychology -- to such a level that it causes the astonishment of foriegners -- arises from a pseudo-science that was specific to the 19th century, which was continued in modern times mostly by attempts at defining the romanian as a special (peculiar) being. From this originated themes that have become points of reference in this discourse [about the romanian identity], like the «mioritic space» ["Mioriţa" is the national folk ballad], in the works of Lucian Blaga [romanian poet and philosopher from the 20th century], or «the romanian feeling of the being», in the works of Constantin Noica [romanian philosopher from the 20th century]. From this originated also the portraying of ourselves as being «a bridge between East and West», without belonging to neither one of these spaces. The truth is, of course, that we do not represent a monolithic group, we are of all types, like the other peoples", says Lucian Boia.

Often, this image of romanians as a people out of the ordinary had the role to differentiate ourselves from the surrounding peoples, which had a similar destiny, and to bring us closer to the West: "Our major cultural tradition (unlike the minor rural tradition) is based on a self-flattering social representation, one of an exceptional bilateral relationship between us and the West, which aims to play down the other little cultures, of the neighbouring countries, and to place ourselves in a special light", believes the political scientist Alina Mungiu-Pippidi.

"From the dawn of modern times, we have referred ourselves to central models, like the french or german one, we compared ourselves with the big [nations], not with our neighbours, and I think this is a starting flaw of the modern romanian culture", says also the literary critic Paul Cernat.

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Guarding Europe
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"You had time to build cathedrals because we protected you from the turks". This blunt statement, in fact a reproach addressed to the West, has constituted itself as a founding myth, often linked to the romanian exceptionalness or to our role as a perpetual victim of history. The romanians are not the only ones who embraced this type of self-referrence. "The myth of the guarding sentinel has a strong correspondent (parallel) in the myths of the neighbours -- hungarians, poles, serbians. It hides a [psychological] complex that we share with these peoples, the compensation myths that are specific for small countries. The myths of the great powers are different, they allege a direct superiority", says the essayist Andrei Cornea.

"A correlated syndrome is the one that I will name with the saying of the poet [Mihai Eminescu] «[we defend our] poverty and needs and kin». We are «in the way of all the evils», [as the chronicler Grigore Ureche said], a crucified and martyrized crossroad. Our poverty is different than any other poverty, it has nothing to do with laziness, or lack of skills, it is a fatality (unlucky fate) always imposed by The Other -- from the turks to the soviets or to the «predatory imperialism» of the great powers -- but it is assumed in a full and proud deliberation, like a superior form of ascetism. The self-compassion is a constant (enduring characteristic) of the romanian bovarism from always", says Zoe Petre.

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The eternity was born in a village
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The romanian spirituality is rural or, like the consecrated expression says, "agrarian to the highest degree". The myth of rurality, which stems from the obvious fact that the romanian society had a predominantly rural structure, came to oppose the village, viewed as a recipient of all the virtues, to the town, viewed as a place of corruption and alienation from the country. The conflict between autochtonists [cultural nationalists] and cosmopolitan "modernists" sweeps through the modern romanian culture, up to the present day.

"Romania has, like all the rural societies, a minor [cultural] tradition included in the traditional rural way of life, and a major [cultural] tradition, which identifies itself with the national culture, the one created outside the villages. The romanian [cultural] pastoralists, the most encountered category [of intellectuals] for a long period of time, like the [poet and philosopher] Lucian Blaga, had a representation of the minor [cultural] tradition as the romanian national culture. This tradition follows a straight line, up unto the Romanian Peasant Museum devised by [the ethnologist] Horia Bernea", says Alina Mungiu-Pippidi.

The communism tried to break off this identification of the romanians with the rural [space] : "The myth of rurality was brutally replaced in the communist period with the myth of the industrial worker, especially in the 1950s", says Lucian Boia.

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Let Eminescu judge us!
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Mihai Eminescu is not only the national poet or the "absolute man of the romanian culture". He was to be named, in a song from Bessarabia [Republic of Moldova] that was popular after 1990, "The Lord of our salvation", called to judge the romanians like a Messiah. How has this happened?

"Eminescu represents the central myth that we know today, because his personality is linked to the myth of the founder", thinks Paul Cernat. "The figures of the founders, of those that had priority, even though they have less substance [importance] than those that followed them, are venerated [by the romanians]. An example is the one of Vasile Cīrlova, the founder of the romanian romantic poetry, which is less important than the majority of the poets that followed after him, but was assigned a more important role in the literary history books. The myth of the founder, of the henefactor, is dominant in our literature and hides the [psychological] complex of a minor, marginal, culture", reckons Paul Cernat.

The cult of romanians for Eminescu, in parallel with his too little comprehension outside the country, discloses another autochtonous frustration, "the lack of [international] recognition for our values", which is invoked even by authors from the present time. "The author marked by genius who is praised by a perfectly united society and who, in spite of all this, is very little known outside the [romanian] borders, whereupon appears the lamentation that he is not translated and read all over the world, this is the typical portrait of the romanian person of culture. To say it differently: our [cultural] myths are not related to a cultural content, but to a status. They are not about a founding event, but about a drama of the present time", says Cristian Preda.

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The romanian mythology and the european integration
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Romania has recently become a member of the European Union (EU), and hundreds of thousands of romanians already live and work [outside Romania] on the territories of the EU countries. Our representations about ourselves and the others will be subjected to a process of transformation?

"The myths do not disappear so easily, because they are an integral part of the human being, they change or change their appearance, but stay hidden in the subconscious mind of the community, like the rivers who flow alternately on the surface and underground", thinks Andrei Cornea. "They can be detrimental when they hamper the critical thinking, but the same critical thinking must accept the fact that they are a part of the human substance and cannot be controlled, like is the situation for the religion."

"I am quite sceptical about the way in which the european future of Romania can change this state of affairs. I think that the european integration, at least for a short period, will worsen the [psychological] complexes. We wait for the help to come from the outside, we wait too much from a «big daddy». The most convincing example is the one of the political environment, in which the situation, in spite of all our expectations, has degenerated", affirms Paul Cernat.

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Romania - Fabulospirit
-----------------------------

The advertising campaigns promoting the image of Romania suffer all from the same shortcoming, thinks Lucian Boia: they refer to a mythology that is understood by romanians, but that has no sense for non-romanians, the ones that are invited to "recognize us [in the ads]".

"The frustration caused by the lack of [foreign] understanding of our values has produced humorous [advertising] situations, for example the «Eternal and fascinating Romania» [advertising campaign from the 1995-1998] and this strange story of «Fabulospirit» [advertising campaign from 2007], tactics which are not extremely intelligent, to say it lightly. They start from a seemingly injustice that is done unto us. Here is a factor for which we are to blame, because starting from this interest for the national specificity and our «exceptionalness», we promote topics [about Romania] that are of no interest to others."

Alina Mungiu-Pippidi believes that the population is more pragmatic in this regard than a certain part of the cultural elite: "These representations (portrayals) are already a thing of the past for the majority of the population. There are still groups that have illusions of autochtonity and greatness who spend the public money in order to translate [literary] works that don't interest nobody in the rest of the world or believe that our mission is to rechristianize Europe. Their prevalence (share) in the romanian culture is still disproportionately high, but I think they will still be around for some time because of the mechanism (conjuncture) that makes the [romanian] europeanist intellectuals to leave the country and the autochtonist intellectuals to stay here", thinks the political scientist.

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The Good Ruler vs. The Bad Aristocrats, from [Al.I.] Cuza to Traian Băsescu
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A durable (persistent) myth and which resounds in the romanian mind is represented by the one of the good ruler, father of the people, who struggles with the bad boyars (aristocrats, noblemen), which try to defeat his worthwile intentions. He was used by the european rulers beginning with the end of the Middle Ages, when kings started to have open controversies with the noblemen, as the [political] power became more centralized. In this type of conflicts were involved Stephen the Great and Michael the Brave, and the force of this idea continued to have an influence in Romania even in the modern times. "A myth that functions (works) even today is the one of the ruler being at odds with the aristocrats, the noblemen, the «oligarchy». It is widespread and can be recognized in many situations, even Machiavelli advised the prince to make an alliance with the people, not with the noblemen", explains Andrei Cornea. "There are many examples, like all the romanian most known voivodes (rulers), and actually this antagonism (adversity) with the noblemen, is spread across all the south-european zone. We can see this fight with the «local oligarchy» in the times of Al.I. Cuza, of Carol I, and now the one who plays this role and is successful is [Traian] Băsescu. I don't discuss now who is right in this strife, but Traian Băsescu incarnates a powerful myth, that the ruler is the one who has more probably good intentions, than the nobility."

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Ceauşescu, the manipulator of myths
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The romanian representations with mythological value were used for political purposes by many leaders and in many historical periods. Sometimes, with good intentions, when a popular mobilization was needed in order to attain an important purpose for the romanian nation, like in the time period when the country was modernized. Other times, however, unscrupolous (dishonest) politicians used them for malicious purposes. Some examples would be Ion Antonescu and Carol II, but the one who suceeded to masterfully use the romanian mythology in order to consolidate his power was Nicolae Ceauşescu, and the consequences can be felt even today. He used, one after the other, the myth of latinity and the myth of dacian autochtonism, depending on the political interests of the moment and knowing very well what powerful resonance have those in the collective mentality of romanians. "When Ceauşescu needed, in the years 1965-1968, a national legitimation [for his policy], he emphasized the myth of latinity, because the «island of latinity» kept us above the slavic sea -- the USSR [Soviet Union]. Later, when the idea of independence and autonomy began to obsess him, he used the myth of autochtonism -- dacianism, thracianism. Ceauşescu represents the most obvious case -- although not unique -- of using the myths for political puposes, depending on what he needed for the current interests", explains Andrei Cornea.

http://tinyurl.com/romanian-founding-myths
(shortened URL to the newspaper article posted on the internet)
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Simeone   Mon May 17, 2010 10:46 am GMT
@ravinescu You used a lot of time to prepare this propaganda. Congratulations!
OriginalGuest   Tue May 18, 2010 6:31 pm GMT
@Ravinescu: That was a good read. It's good to see Romanian intellectuals displaying a more reserved position towards the 19th century founding myths for the sake of truth.
Rob   Wed May 26, 2010 3:06 am GMT
The romance languages are divided in:

Italo-romance group: Italiano,Corsican, Emilian-Romagnol, Friulian, Judaeo-Italian, Napolitano-Calabrese, Logudorian, Gallurian, Sassarian,Campidanian, Siciliano, Veneto

Ibero-romance group: Espanol, Portuges, Galician, Aragonese,Asturian, Calao. Fala, Extremaduran, Ladino, Mirandes, Mozarabic, Valenciano

Gallo-romance group: Frances,Catalan,Auvergnat, Occitan FrancoProvensal,Gascon, Languedocien, Ligurian,Limousin, Lombard, Piemontese, Judeo-Provensal, Zarphatic

Raetho-romance group: Raetho Friulano, Ladin

Balkano-romance group: Macedo-Rumano, Istro-Rumano, Meglenite
Yoel Preda   Sun May 30, 2010 6:18 am GMT
can anyone tell me where my last name originated from, like going as far back as possible? my mom tells me it's Romanian because my dad is romanian, but sadly he died so i can't ask him right now and my mom doesn't know much more than me. Just Preda. I want to see where my family basically started down my fathers line. maybe i own some bit of land somewhere in the world or something. =/
it would just be awesome to know, so if anyone has any info. please please share. thank you for your time!
@ yoel   Sun May 30, 2010 12:43 pm GMT
Preda came form the Latin word: PRAEDA and is a name which can be found in SPAIN, PORTUGAL, ITALY & ROMANIA, (and maybe other countries as well, but I am not aware of it). If your father was a Romanian, he might very well have been from the southern part of the country, respectively, from Walachia! Unfortunately, more than that, I cannot tell you about it; you should find out the full name of your father, where exactly was he from and ask at National Archives Institute for deeper investigation. Simple name PREDA is not enough since this is a pretty common name in Romania. I am sorry for not being able to supply you more information on this matter!

Succes!
Radu C
ravinescu   Sun May 30, 2010 2:03 pm GMT
Preda is indeed a fairly common romanian name, along with its derivatives (Predescu, Predoiu, Preduţ, etc). However, it is not of latin origin. In Romania the family names (last names) are mostly of romanian or slavic origin. To my knowledge there are no romanian family names of latin origin (derived from latin names). The name Preda is of slavic (bulgarian) origin, as can be seen from the dictionary of romanian last names written by Iorgu Iordan, a renowned romanian linguist from the 20th century.

http://tinyurl.com/preda-name
(shortened URL to the entry "Preda" in the dictionary available on Google Books)

It must be said that "preda" is also a common romanian verb, meaning "to hand over", but also "to surrender", and even "to teach (a class)". The romanian word originates from the slavic word "prĕdati/prĕdanije" as ca be seen below.

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PREDĮ, predįu, vb. I. 1. Tranz. A da cuiva īn primire un obiect, un bun care īi revine de drept sau de care trebuie să răspundă; a īnmāna, a īncredința, a remite, a transmite. 2. Refl. A se recunoaște īnvins și a se pune la dispoziția dușmanului, urmăritorului etc. ♦ Tranz. A da pe cineva īn māna cuiva care să dispună de el. 3. Tranz. A transmite cuiva īn mod sistematic cunoștințele unei discipline (īn cadrul unei instituții de īnvățămānt, al unor cursuri speciale); a expune o lecție. – Din sl. prĕdati.

predį (predįu, predįt), vb. – 1. A remite, a īncredința. – 2. A explica o lecție sau un obiect de studiu. – 3. (Refl.) A se da īn mīna dușmanului. – Mr., megl. pridau. Sl. prĕdati (Cihac, II, 90), conjugat ca a da. – Der. predanie, s.f. (trădare; tradiție), īnv., din sl. prĕdanije. Cf. prididi.


http://dexonline.ro/definitie/preda
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Andrei   Sun May 30, 2010 2:27 pm GMT
Interesting. I know my mom's side of the family is partially of boier origin, of some Isvoranu family, although part of it, with the name Eftimiu, came from Greece in the early 19th century, though they didn't like to mention that part much I guess maybe because of the association with the phanariot period. I'm guessing this is tied to the word izvor which means source or spring. It sucks that the communists had to confiscate my grandpa's manor and lots of land in the country. At least the government gave it back later after the revolution, but it didn't do too much good then.
ravinescu   Sun May 30, 2010 2:54 pm GMT
Yes, Izvoranu or Isvoranu is derived from the word "izvor", which means "source of fresh water".

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IZVÓR, izvoare, s.n. 1. Apă subterană care iese sau țāșnește la suprafața pămāntului; fāntānă. 2. Loc de unde izvorăște la suprafața pămāntului un izvor (1), o apă curgătoare; īnceputul unui rāu; obārșie. 3. Sursă de lumină sau de căldură. 4. Fig. Lucru din care provine ceva; origine (a unui lucru); sursă. 5. Document, text original (istoric, științific). – Din sl. izvorŭ.

http://dexonline.ro/definitie/izvor
===================

The family name Izvoranu/Isvoranu means "the one from Izvor, Izvoru, Izvorul, Izvorani" (names of romanian localities).

http://tinyurl.com/izvoranu-name
(shortened URL to the entry "Izvoranu" in the dictionary of romanian family names available on Google Books)

The boyars (romanian nobles from the old times, usually landlords) had the habit of using as family names the name of their estate, so it is very possible that your ancestor had land possessions near Izvorani, in the Ilfov county.
Andrei   Sun May 30, 2010 8:02 pm GMT
Cool, that makes sense, since it wasn't far from Bucharest, which is surrounded Ilfov county. I think they said their title came from fighting for some medieval king called Stephen the Great.

I'm surprised I found my grandma's maiden name on my dad's side, Bianchi, which is of Italian origin, on that site. Didn't think it was significant enough to be there lol. All I know is it means white.

Anyway, this thread is a pretty interesting read overall.
Reason Is My Religion   Mon May 31, 2010 7:49 pm GMT
Thanks for all the info, Ravinescu. Your contributions are appreciated; at least, for the open minded readers :)