French in Eastern Europe

Juan Carlos II   Tue Jan 27, 2009 6:02 am GMT

Education 1st or 2nd foreign language, according to the curriculum of the student.

Number and percentage of students learning French:
* At the primary level: 11,340 (early French)
* At the secondary level: 115,600 (25%)
* At the university level: 12,000 (in 5 universities)

Many teachers of French as a foreign language: about 600

French presence in the country: about 30% of the population has learned French and speak more or less.

Accession of Albania to the status of associate member of the OIF
National de la Francophonie
Universities (Polytechnic and Tirana) members of the AUPELF-UREF
Municipality of Tirana, a member of the AIMF
Membership of a group of parliamentarians at the APF
Forum Francophone des Affaires

French presence in the media:
* TV5 taken by radio in a dozen cities
* IFC Films subtitled in Albanian national television
* RFI on the FM band in Tirana
* Daily Bulletin in French of the Albanian Telegraphic Agency
* All channels and French satellite

Cultural Institutions:
* 2 Alliances Françaises: Tirana and Korca
* 2 antennas: Shkoder and Elbasan

1. The teaching of French in Bulgarian schools is organized as follows:

1.1 First degree general education / 8 years of primary school education college + /

1.1.1 primary-school education:
1st - 4-Year French as their first foreign language - early teaching of foreign languages - according to the school from 1993 until the 1999-2000 school year:

3 hours / week in 1st year, 2 hours / week in 2-Year and 3 hours / week in 3rd and 4th years. The teaching of French as a second foreign language beginning in the second school year.

- French as a first foreign language - teaching foreign language early - according to the school from 1994 until the 2001-2002 school year:

3 hours / week in 1st year, 4 hours / week in 2nd year and 5 hours per week in 3rd and 4th years. The teaching of a second foreign language begins at 5th grade.

For all students who are first-year school year 2002/2003 is valid on the school according to which the teaching of a first foreign language must start from the second school year and a second foreign language -- since the fifth grade.

1.1.2 college-education:
5th - 8th year - French as a first foreign language for students who continue their education in terms of early foreign language with 5 hrs / week

in 5th and 6th years and 4 hours / week in 7th and 8th grades.

5th - 8th year - French as a first foreign language for students who begin their studies in foreign language in school in 1992 with 4 hours / week, the French as a second foreign language beginning in the 9th years;

5th - 8th year - French as a second foreign language for students who study a foreign language in terms of early foreign language with 4 hours / week.

1.2 Second level of general education

1.2.1 Secondary schools - education: schools
9th - 12th year - the first French as a foreign language - 2 hours per week until the 10 th and an option for additional hours required in 11th and 12th years.

- French as a second foreign language - 2 hours per week until the 10 th and an option for additional hours required in 11th and 12th years;

High Schools / Secondary Schools and Sections profile in schools with an entrance examination after the 7th school year with intensive courses in French: compulsory education

French as their first foreign language: 8 th - 12 th years

8th year with intensive courses in French - 18 hours / week + 1 hour new technologies in French; 9 th to 12 th year - 4 hours per week.

French as a second foreign language:
Schedule Required: 9 th - 12 th year - 2 hours per week;

Learning profile: 9th - 11th year - at least 3 hours / week; 12th year - at least 4 hours / week. Lycées professionals with an entrance examination after the 7th year with intensive courses in French:

French as their first foreign language - mandatory schedule: 8th year - 13 hours per week; 9-Year - 4 hours per week; 10 th to 12 th - 3 hours / week.

French as a second foreign language - mandatory schedule: 10th and 11th - 2 hours / week. Professional Schools and colleges with a review after 8 - grade school:
French as a first / second language - mandatory schedule: 9th and 10th grades - 2 hours / week.

The number of students who studied French in Bulgaria during the school year 2001/2002 is approximately 104 000.

1st - 4th year - 4887 students
5th - 8th school year - 45 939 students
9 th - 12 th year - 28 000 students

11 149 students studying in 54 special schools and schools with bilingual classes Franco-Bulgarian.

25 000 students studying French in professional schools, 32 have an entrance examination after the 7th grade and intensive courses in French.

The total number of French teachers in Bulgaria is 1365.

2. In Bulgaria there are 6 channels in French schools:

including one at the University of Chemical Technology and steel, one with the Technical University, another at the Academy of Medicine, a fourth at the University of Sofia. Since 1997 there is a French chain with the Higher Institute of the food industry to the city of Plovdiv and since 1999 - French branch of political science at New Bulgarian University in Sofia.

Since 1996 in Sofia was established Francophone Institute of Directors and management - a high school for French regional importance with students from Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova and Macedonia.

According to the regulations of the Ministry of Education of Georgia, foreign language teaching in secondary schools takes place in classes V-XI at a rate of 19 hours per week.

Special schools (with teaching of French, English and other languages) start learning foreign languages from the second class and, at a rate of 42 hours per week.

The Ministry of Education has developed educational programs and has published manuals for French schoolchildren and books for teachers.

In Georgia, the French are taught in 354 schools and of these 30 schools are specialized. 55,076 students study French.

Along with state schools, private schools (Collège Saint-Exupéry, Ecole Franco-Georgian Noe Jordania, College Marie Brosset) work since the 90s.
Republic of Hungary

In general, French is the third foreign language (fourth) taught in Hungary, preceded by German and English.

However, the French under an approval, may be taught as a second language as young as 6 years. In this case, French retains its status as a second language in secondary education where it is normally optional fourth language.

There are a number of primary and secondary schools specialized in teaching French as a second language and some courses are taught in French.

There are also 4 lycées completely bilingual French-Hungarian.

In general, French is the second or third (with German) foreign language taught in Lithuania, preceded by English.

In some parts of Lithuania, French is taught in secondary schools and universities as a foreign language major.

For historical and cultural reasons, the Francophonie in Macedonia is quite alive and well represented.

This goes back to the 19th century when France, for Macedonia under occupation, was the land of the free and safe for the children of rich families Macedonian who went to schools to study in Paris, Strasbourg and elsewhere.

On the other hand, until the Second World War in Macedonia there were French schools and colleges which were run by nuns.

As to the immediate past, it should be noted that France played a leading role regarding the recognition of the new Macedonian state by international institutions.

According to the statistics of 1994 in primary schools, French is represented with 35% (compared with 57% going to the English, 5% - in Russian and 2% - in German).

In secondary education, as the first language, French returning 30% (English: 55% Russian: 9%; German: 6%). As a second language in secondary schools, French is represented with 42% (English: 42%; German: 8% and 8% Russian).

The number of teachers of French 314 (English: 344; Russian: 70; German: 15).

French is taught in schools mainly primary campaign.

The introduction of a compulsory second language for foreign students last year (the fourth) of the primary level, under the new curriculum should be for the benefit of the French language.

In 1997, bilingual sections have been introduced in secondary schools.

At the moment such sections exist in secondary schools in Kumanovo, Tetovo, Skopje, Prilep, Bitola and Negotino, with a total of 13 classes and 360 students.

These are sections where certain subjects are taught in English in four years. Each section has a firm linguistic features a library, a VCR, a television with satellite dish and a computer.

As for higher education, language and French literature is very present.

In French philology near the University "Saints Cyril and Methodius" in Skopje, in first grade are about 50 students.

The Council of the Faculty of literature has adopted the principles of teaching French for beginners, which should increase the number of pupils learning French.

The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Macedonia, following the recommendations of the Council of Europe is determined to continue the policy - learn two foreign languages. This determination will be in favor of teaching the French language and prevent the trend of decline of French in the schools where he held the position of first language, in direct competition with English.

It should be noted that the French Cultural Center in Skopje (established in 1974) contributes to the promotion of ties between the Republic of Macedonia and France, and thus those with the Francophonie.

The Republic of Moldova is a country of Latin civilization, the only republics of the former USSR in which the official language is a language of Latin origin.

Most Moldovans are francophone.

The Moldovan government remains very committed to the French tradition and support all efforts to keep the French at the forefront of foreign languages taught in Moldova

Currently, the Republic of Moldova, French is taught by about 2,000 teachers, approximately 700,000 students - or 67% of the total number of students - in 1124 secondary schools. In these institutions known as "general culture", the French language is studied as a foreign language at the rate of 2 to 3 hours per week (from second to twelfth).

There are also specialized schools, further education in one or several subjects, including English. The schools are specialized in French to the number of 115.

In these institutions, the French language is taught from second to twelfth at 4 to 5 hours per week. In addition to elements of general linguistics, are studied in French, a number of subjects, including literature, geography, or more specific disciplines and techniques.

In higher education, State University of Moldova, Chisinau Pedagogical University, Pedagogical University in Baltimore and the Free University of Moldova international offer their courses in English and are in total in the English language, almost 750 students per year. The Technical University has been 4 years with a channel for lessons in French. It forms each year, more than 80 construction engineers, radio, clothing, electrical engineering.

Since 1998 educational institutions and libraries of Moldova have received a donation of 80,000 pounds of the Alliance Française.

Emissions of a French language schools are broadcast on national radio, 'Dis-moi tout' and television, 'The French space.


Based on the 2005-2006 school year, to 3.3% of pupils in primary and secondary schools, French is a compulsory language, but 65.0% of students studying English, 33.6% -- German, 6.1% - Russian.

Furthermore, as additional language, 1% of pupils in primary and secondary schools study French, 14.1% - English and 10.7% - German. English, German, Russian and French are the languages most commonly taught in school, but there are schools where we study other languages such as Spanish or Italian.

In elementary school (grades 1 - 6), for 0.5% of students, French is a compulsory language, to 48.4% - English to 15.0% - German and 2, 1% - Russian. Furthermore, as additional language, 0.7% of students studying French, 24.6% - English and 7.8% - German.

In college (grades 7 - 8), for 1.5% of students, English is a compulsory language, to 73.8% - English to 27.9% - German and 2.6% -- Russian. Furthermore, as additional language, 2.5% of students studying French, 12.0% - English and 26.7% - German.

In grammar school (grades 10 - 12) where two languages are required, French as a compulsory language is studied by 13.2% of students, English - 97.4%, German - 71, 0% and Russian - 11.4%. Furthermore, as additional language, 0.3% of students studying French, English - 0.3% and German - 0.4%.

In Romania, the general education extends over 8 years, it includes primary and secondary education (classes I to IV and, respectively, V-VIII).

Starting from the third grade, students can choose between several languages, namely English, French, German, Russian, Spanish, Italian and even Japanese.

The study of a second modern language begins in secondary school, in fifth. The study of the figures shows that the number of students learning foreign languages is increasing year by year, and among these, the French occupies a privileged place.

For example:

* for the academic year 1994/1995, in the 562,212 primary school pupils studying French and 250,693 pupils in English and in secondary education, 706,097 have studied French as their first language and modern 210,755 as a second language, while 296,820 students learned English as their first language and 328,923 as a second language;

*For the academic year 1995/1996, in the 593,979 primary school pupils studying French and 271,868 pupils in English and in secondary education, 698,258 have studied French as their first language and modern 214,965 as a second language, while 318,165 students learned English as their first language and 322,513 as a second language;

* For the academic year 1996/1997, in the 609,877 primary school pupils studying French and 293,589 pupils in English and in secondary education, 692,325 have studied French as their first language and modern 217,882 as a second language, while 907,780 students learned English as their first language and 991,896 as a second language.

According to Article 32 of the Constitution and the provisions of the Education Act No. 84/1995, education in Romania can also be provided in a language of international communication.

Law No. 84/1995 stipulates that the Ministry of Education to approve the organization of units and institutions for this purpose.

In these schools, language and Romanian literature, history of Romanians and Geography of Romania are taught only in Romanian.

Under these provisions, the Ministry of Education adopted a regulation on the organization and functioning of bilingual classes and intensive.

The intensive study of a language of international communication is the form of education in which the first modern language is taught in an increased number of hours of study.

This program is introduced in primary schools from the 3rd class and in the secondary from the 5th grade. The bilingual program is the form of organized education at high schools (grades IX and XII), in which education is taught in Romanian language and language of international communication for some discipline of study.

This program applies only to the teaching of the first foreign language. Now (1998-1999), in Romania there are 60 sections in schools with bilingual French students in 5199.


Language teaching is not usually in the program mandatory Czech schools. In such cases, the figure among the French languages.

There is, however, the Czech Republic in 1500 qualified teachers in learning the language.

French is the third foreign language taught in the Czech Republic, after English and German. It is taught to 6% of pupils in primary schools. In secondary schools follows the course of 14% of French students.

Czech Republic 4 schools are bilingual Franco-Czech.

In Prague there is a school system or the enseingement is provided in French, started kindergarten to secondary schools.

In some other Czech cities are also institutions that provide instruction in French, but it remains relatively rare.

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Juan Carlos II   Tue Jan 27, 2009 6:04 am GMT
More French to be taught in Serbian schools

The Minister said that French as a first foreign language is taught in 50 primary schools and as a second language in 600 schools.

He added that 25 mentors for the French language have been trained and that this agreement confirms a good educational cooperation between France and Serbia.

Terral said that there are at least three reasons for France wanting to promote the French language in Serbia, France refuses to accept the world’s uniformity, ‘Francophonie’ and Serbia’s European perspective.
Invitado   Tue Jan 27, 2009 6:49 am GMT
Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria, Georgia, Albania, Armenia, Greece and even Serbia are countries that have large percentage of secondary French speakers.

French is also regaining its lost status in Poland and Lithuania.

These are the countries that have a close ties with France.
ça suffit   Tue Jan 27, 2009 7:56 am GMT
allez chier cons
Francophone   Tue Jan 27, 2009 1:32 pm GMT
The French President: "Arabic is the language of future".

The French government is strongly advocating the teaching of Arabic language and civilization in French schools. Not surprising, considering the number of Arabs and Muslims in France, and the unctuous deference with which they are treated by officials, beginning notably with Nicolas Sarkozy, who cannot praise enough the splendor of Arabic contributions to the world.

The French National Assembly was the scene of a meeting earlier this month of the first Conference on the Teaching of Arabic Language and Culture, attended by a variety of interested parties. There was much wearisome blather about the need for "dialogue."

In his message to the participants, French President Nicolas Sarkozy called Arabic the "language of the future, of science and of modernity," and expressed the hope that "more French people share in the language that expresses great civilizational and spiritual values."

"We must invest in the Arabic language (because) to teach it symbolizes a moment of exchange, of openness and of tolerance, (and it) brings with it one of the oldest and most prestigious civilizations of the world. It is in France that we have the greatest number of persons of Arabic and Muslim origin. Islam is the second religion of France," Sarkozy reminded his listeners.

He proceeded to enumerate the various "advances in terms of diversity," the increase in Muslim sections of cemeteries, the training of imams and chaplains and the appointments of ministers of diverse backgrounds.

"France is a friend of Arabic countries. We are not seeking a clash between the East and West," he affirmed, emphasizing the strong presence of Arab leaders at the founding summit of the Union for the Mediterranean, last July 13. "The Mediterranean is where our common hopes were founded. Our common sea is where the principal challenges come together: durable development, security, education and peace," added the French president.
Elliott   Tue Jan 27, 2009 9:51 pm GMT
Wow, you guys honestly have no lives. Who's is really gonna read this crap anyway?
Hispanican   Thu Jan 29, 2009 8:33 am GMT
Taylor   Thu Jan 29, 2009 8:35 am GMT
<< Wow, you guys honestly have no lives. Who's is really gonna read this crap anyway? >>

Those information about th status of French in Eastern Europe including Serbia is not crap. It's more likely that yuour mind is crap.
Informer   Thu Jan 29, 2009 11:53 am GMT
The 12th Summit of the International Organization of Francophonie wrapped up on Sunday in the capital city of Canada’s French-speaking Quebec province. During the three-day event, leaders from 55 member countries (including Belgium, Switzerland and Canada – though in these countries French is only spoken by a minority of the population) and 13 observer nations held talks on wide-ranging issues. The financial crisis stole the limelight. The 70 nations and regional governments also pledged to help cut global greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2050. They said they would draft a “concerted francophone position” for upcoming climate change conferences in Poznan in December and Copenhagen in 2009. However, while the French-speaking politicians talk about (financial) bubbles and (greenhouse) gases, their language is dying, both globally and within France itself.

I have discovered an informative new English-language website for anyone interested in the French language. Called The World-Wide Decline of French, and administered by a gentleman named Unfrench, it chronicles the decline of the French language and the ineffectiveness of costly and conscientious programs initiated by the French government in its misbegotten effort to rescue and promote the language of Molière.

How can Third World countries that speak a rather limited French, and that have more urgent economic problems to worry about, save the language? How can schools teach French if the overwhelming number of students demand Arabic or Spanish or Chinese? Above all, how can French compete with English?

The only factors that propel a language from mere street talk to the level of a great cultural asset are the men of genius who write great literature, the poets who open new avenues of expression, leading to a higher level of consciousness, the artists, musicians, essayists, playwrights, actors, journalists, commentators, teachers, scholars, etc... all of whom use, manipulate and enrich the language with individuality, and at the same time with national pride.

Such men are inspired and inspire others. But how to bring about a return to cultural excellence in this time of spiritual impoverishment? How to generate inspiration? Lawrence Auster, who was responsible for my discovering the site, has some suggestions:

To paraphase Obama's "spreading the wealth," what they're doing now is trying to save French by "spreading the French," instead of by elevating it. Meaning, improve the quality of French among the French people. Teach great literature. Instill love of France and French culture, so that the French have something worth talking about again. Make Muslims unwelcome and start pushing them out, thus re-invigorating French identity. Dismantle the EU and the entire managerial, liberal, egalitarian, and Eurabian agenda and consciousness, which kill the mind, turn language into a PC tool to conceal instead of a tool to communicate truth. Bring back belief in truth, so that there will be things worth saying again, worth using language well for. Focus schools on 17th century French literature with its clarté. Make clarté, love of truth, love of France, love of the historic West, and, even better, belief in Christianity, which is all about TRUTH, the center of French culture.

“Clarté” means “clarity”. French was always said to be the language of “clarté”. There is also the implication of light because a language that is clear sheds light on a problem. The old saying went "ce qui n'est pas clair n'est pas français" (what is not clear is not French).

Once French nation and culture and its Western identity have been saved and revived, and once the French used by the French people has been improved and purified, then start to make French attractive again to other Westerners. Forget about trying to make it attractive to Third Worlders. As you suggested from the articles at that site, such efforts do not avail. Accept the fact that France cannot have an empire again, that trying to have a Muslim empire only Islamizes France, but see that French can still be saved, because the greatness and beauty of French can still have a great appeal to fellow white Westerners. Thus encourage French as a universal second language in the West alongside English. It won't be as widespread as English, of course, but the unique beauty of French and the "high" of speaking it gives French an appeal that English can't match.

What do you think?

I responded that I agreed completely with his ideas but didn’t think it would happen. However, I added that my more fatalistic view is not to be taken as a prediction. One never knows how things will evolve. After all the Renaissance was ushered in by disastrous events. That could happen again.

I would add a couple of ideas to what Larry Auster said. First, start teaching LATIN again, and even Greek, if you can find students willing to make the effort. Second, STOP teaching French children the “global” method of reading. This language-destroying method has had a demonstrably disastrous effect on the way the formerly well-educated French spell, conjugate verbs, and express themselves. This applies to the teaching of foreign languages as well. Third, STOP teaching French to foreigners via the “global” (or “audio-visual-lingual”) method. This method can lead to chaos. Language study for older students has to be structured and grammar has to be taught systematically, whether the students like it or not. Then it is easy to make the transition to structured speech, and eventually to everyday speech. (Note: the final step to authentic everyday speech at normal speed is never easy.) Foreigners are not learning French any better than the French are learning their own language.

If anyone has other suggestions, please let us know.

Of course, the very young learn languages quickly, and grammar can be put off, but not eliminated. The illustration of Jemima Puddle-Duck in French (Jemima Cane-de-flaque) is from Barnes and Noble. Such a translation can be used for both French children and those learning French.

Remember when Winnie The Pooh came out in Latin (Winnie Ille Pooh)? It was a huge success and it sold out immediately. Everyone thought that a new era in the teaching of Latin had arrived. But today, the downward spiral of education having taken its toll, Latin is rarely taught, although it hasn't entirely disappeared. Winnie Ille Pooh may be a good example of making Latin “fun”, but it also shows that making something “fun” does not save it. Quite the contrary.

A return to the teaching of the classics is one very good way of re-stimulating interest in the languages of Europe, including German and Castilian Spanish, which is very difficult – has anyone tackled Don Quijote in Spanish? The original version used to be read in American universities, but that would be very rare today. However a solid background in Latin would facilitate access to the great literatures of Western Europe. (Note: I do not know Latin. I studied it too late in life to retain it. I did go a bit further in Greek, but I would need supervision and grammar review if I were to go back to reading Homer. Not being classically trained is a major handicap, IMHO.)

As for German, it was quickly phased out (again, not entirely) after 1968. Nobody was willing to make the effort. Dumbing down the mind, and jacking up the grades became the unexpressed and inexpressible goals of education.

Finally, what would happen if we suddenly began making intellectual demands on hedonistic young people, or people from different cultures who simply do not have the background to do rigorous work? Would there be violence? Is dumbing down a defense against revolution? Would it be better to just close the schools? I have often thought so, but people turn in disgust from such suggestions. They say "education is our future." That’s what we all fear, isn’t it?
Elliott   Thu Jan 29, 2009 10:04 pm GMT
<<Those information about th status of French in Eastern Europe including Serbia is not crap. It's more likely that yuour mind is crap.>>

Oh, yeah that's a really mature comeback. While you're at it, why don't you get a life if you're getting anything out of this rubbish.
Guest   Fri Jan 30, 2009 12:15 am GMT
Why should the Serbians study French? France supported illegal Kosovo's independence.
Taylor   Mon Feb 02, 2009 8:53 am GMT
<< Oh, yeah that's a really mature comeback. While you're at it, why don't you get a life if you're getting anything out of this rubbish. >>

Here comes again that stinking and rotting shit.
Visitor   Mon Feb 02, 2009 8:57 am GMT
<< Why should the Serbians study French? France supported illegal Kosovo's independence. >>
The US, UK, and Spain were the authors of the independence of Kosovo and Montenegro that's why Serbians prefer French over English and never Spanish.

In case you didn't know France helped Poland, Serbia(and the rest of Ex-Yugoslavia), Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Lithuania, gain their independence and those countries still remember that.
Wikipedia!Go now!   Mon Feb 02, 2009 4:49 pm GMT
Oh yes Serbia was the one that struggled to get independence from Yugoslavia. LOL!
You obviously don't know anything about that!
Greece? Albania? P-lease! Your ignorance is appalling.
The only reason French is being studied in those countries is because French government is promoting it and paying some cash. Francophonie is frankly phoney, LOL.
Guest   Mon Feb 02, 2009 5:01 pm GMT
<<The US, UK, and Spain were the authors of the independence of Kosovo and Montenegro that's why Serbians prefer French over English and never Spanish>>

US supported Kosovo's independence, but France too:

France became one of the first countries to announce officially about recognition of sovereign Kosovo. France has an embassy in Pristina.[1] Kosovo has an embassy in Paris.

On the contrary Spanish Governement said that Kosovo's independence was against the International Laws and could set a precedent for many nationless minorities like the Flemish.

<<The only reason French is being studied in those countries is because French government is promoting it and paying some cash. Francophonie is frankly phoney, LOL. >>

But French economy has struggled due to the worlwide crisis, so they don't have funds now.