Is Spanish expanding?

Guest   Thu Jan 15, 2009 1:59 pm GMT
<<In Peru, a little half of the population and 75 % of Bolivians speak Quechua>>

What are your sources? English Wikipedia says 80% speak Spanish in Peru and 16% speak Quechua. As for Bolivia Spanish Wikipedia states that 90% speak Spanish natively and the rest speak indigenous tongues.
Visitor   Thu Jan 15, 2009 3:16 pm GMT
<< What are your sources? English Wikipedia says 80% speak Spanish in Peru and 16% speak Quechua. As for Bolivia Spanish Wikipedia states that 90% speak Spanish natively and the rest speak indigenous tongues. >>

A hispanic changed the text in Wikipedia. It's now different from the original. In the index box, Quechua and Aymara used to be there as co-official with Spanish but now it's different.
Guest   Thu Jan 15, 2009 3:24 pm GMT
Ok, but what are your sources?
Visitor   Thu Jan 15, 2009 4:21 pm GMT
<< What are your sources? English Wikipedia says 80% speak Spanish in Peru and 16% speak Quechua. As for Bolivia Spanish Wikipedia states that 90% speak Spanish natively and the rest speak indigenous tongues. >>

A hispanic changed the text in Wikipedia. It's now different from the original. In the index box, Quechua and Aymara used to be there as co-official with Spanish but now it's different.
Guest   Thu Jan 15, 2009 4:37 pm GMT
OK but what are your sources?
Visitor   Thu Jan 15, 2009 4:59 pm GMT
Sweeping South America: indigenous pride

CSmonitor - Peru - (Posted on Apr-06-2007)

Andean languages are making a comeback as long discriminated-against cultures push for acceptance.

LIMA, PERU - Hilaria Supa stands out in Lima in her brightly hued ancestral clothes and long braids. But she is even more of an iconoclast in the Peruvian legislature, where the congresswoman insists on speaking in her native Quechua.

In doing so, Ms. Supa says, she hopes to create a new era of inclusion for the indigenous who have long been discriminated against in Peru.

"When we speak in Quechua they say it's rude because they don't understand us," she says. "But my hope is that the language will someday be appreciated; it will be difficult, but not impossible."

Across the Andes, similar efforts – some controversial – are bringing new recognition to indigenous culture. In Bolivia, the government hopes to nearly double the number of native language programs in classrooms by next year. In Peru, foreigners and locals alike are enrolling in extracurricular courses. Internationally, the renaissance is getting a boost as well: this past summer Google launched a new page in Quechua and Microsoft unveiled Quechua translations of Windows.

It coincides with the indigenous rights movement that has swept across Latin America – contributing to the presidential win of Evo Morales in Bolivia, the competitive run of Ollanta Humala in Peru, and the recently announced presidential bid of Rigoberta Menchu in Guatemala. Each has given a nod to indigenous culture and language in classrooms and the halls of government.

"At a grassroots level, indigenous groups are trying to revitalize their identity, their language, culture, and their ideas," says Serafín Coronel-Molina, a linguist at Princeton University in New Jersey, and native Quechua speaker.

There are an estimated 10 to 13 million Quechua speakers in South America, most of them in Peru and Bolivia. Bolivia has an estimated 1.5 million Aymara speakers. Andean languages also flourish in Ecuador as well as parts of Colombia and Argentina.

But for years, native languages were seen as a sign of inferiority. Miriam Cayetano, who teaches Quechua at San Andres University in La Paz, Bolivia, says parents used to forbid their children to speak their mother tongue. "Before parents thought their children would be undervalued [and discriminated against]," she says.

That is why Supa has made it one of her battle cries. Seventeen percent of Peru's residents speak Quechua as a first language. In her home Huallaccocha, outside Cusco, residents address one another in Quechua on the streets and in local stores. Some don't speak Spanish at all.

But it is a different story along the coast, where most of the political and economic power lies. In July, Supa made headlines when she swore her oath of office not on the Bible but in the name of Incan deities. She is also working on a law to introduce indigenous language education to public schools. "If we don't have an identity, then the rest won't value us," Supa says.

"The town is so proud of her," says Carlos Huaman, Supa's cousin and a farmer in Huallaccocha, where homes are made with mud and straw, and the streets turn into mud slicks in the rainy season. "She can help the indigenous."

Not everyone has celebrated giving more space to indigenous culture. Last year in Bolivia, plans to replace Roman Catholic education in public schools with a course that would place more emphasis on indigenous faith, as well as to require that all schools teach native languages, was scrapped after citizens balked – despite the fact that well over half of the population speaks a native language, according to the national census.

But the Bolivian Education Ministry is pushing to nearly double its native language programs to some 5,000 schools. Currently 2,830 have such programs, up from 540 in 1990. "Learning our culture helps us de-colonize mentally," says Adrian Montalvo, who helps plan the native languages program in the Education Ministry.

The goal is to have all functionaries at the national level adept at at least one native language, too. Where many in the younger generations focus on foreign languages for social mobility and work opportunities, Ms. Cayetano, says many students are enrolling in native languages today for the very same reasons.

"They are starting to revalue their languages," says Cayetano, whose department offers classes to functionaries in the municipal government of La Paz. "They are going to need it in the future."

Visitor   Thu Jan 15, 2009 5:12 pm GMT
Quechua, also known as Runasimi in Quechua from runa, 'people' + simi,'"speech,' is the most widely distributed of all South American Indian language groups. It is spoken by close to 10 million people in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile (Ethnologue). About one-third of Quechua speakers are monolingual and two-thirds are bilingual in Quechua and Spanish.

Quechua has two main branches:

1. Quechua I, also known as Waywash, is spoken in the central highlands of Peru. It is the most archaic and diverse branch of Quechua. Ethnologue lists 17 varieties of Quechua as belonging to this branch. These varieties are often considered to be separate languages due to lack of mutual intelligibility. The largest groups are Huaylla Wanca, Northern Conchucas Ancash, Southern Concuchos Ancash with 250,000 speakers each, and Huaylas Ancash with 336,000 speakers.
2. Quechua II, also known as Wanp'una consists of 29 varieties that are usually divided into three groups :

* Group A consists of five varieties spoken in Peru. The largest varieties are Lambayeque with 20,000 speakers and Cajamarca with 20,000 speakers.
* Group B comprises 14 varieties spoken in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The largest groups are Chimborazo Highland with 1 million speakers, Imbabura Highland with 300,000 speakers, and Cañar Highland with 100,000 speakers, all three in Ecuador.
* Group C consists of 10 varieties spoken in Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, and Peru. This group has the largest number of speakers. The largest varieties are South Bolivian with 2.7 million speakers in Bolivia, Ayacucho with 900,000 speakers, Cuzco with 1.5 million speakers, and Puno with 500,000 speakers, all three in Peru.

It is generally thought that Quechua originated on the central coast of Peru around 2,600 BC. The Inca kings of Cuzco made Quechua their official language. With the Inca conquest of Peru in the 14th century, Quechua became Peru's lingua franca. The Incas spread Quechua to areas that today are the countries of Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile. When the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the 16th century AD, Quechua had already spread throughout a large portion of the South American continent. The spread of Quechua did not stop with the Spanish conquest of Peru. It continued to spread into areas that were not part of the Inca empire such as Colombia, Brazil, and Argentina.

Today, the best known varieties of Quechua are Cuzco spoken by 1.5 million people, and Ayacucho spoken by 900,000 people in Peru.

Aymara has been grouped by some scholars together with Quechua as part of a larger Quechumaran linguistic stock because the two languages share about 30% of their vocabulary. This classification scheme is a matter of dispute because the similarities in vocabulary may be due to borrowing rather than to a common origin. Additionally, the two languages have few similarities in the affixes.



Today, Quechua has the status of an official language in Peru and Bolivia, along with Spanish and Aymara. In Peru education is exclusively in Spanish although many primary-school teachers use a combination of Spanish and Quechua with monolingual Quechua children. In Bolivia and Ecuador the status of Quechua has been improving in recent years due to indigenous movement to revitalize the language. The movement has resulted in the introduction of bilingual education programs in both countries. However, efforts to promote bilingual education in Peru have been unsuccessful. Efforts to introduce the teaching of Quechua in schools in all countries are often stymied by lack of written materials in Quechua in general, and teaching materials in particular.

In rural areas, Quechua is used for everyday communication in informal contexts. Since most native speakers of Quechua are illiterate in their native language Quechua remains largely an oral language. In formal contexts, such as government, administration, commerce, education, and the media, Spanish is used. The only cultural domain where Quechua is used extensively is traditional Andean music.
The Inca Empire
The Inca Empire flourished in what is today's Peru from 1438 to 1533 AD. The Incas used both military and peaceful means to incorporate a large portion of western South American continent. Its capital was Cuzco (in Quechua Quzqu "Navel of the World." The lingua franca of the Inca empire was Quechua. The empire lasted only about 100 years. In 1533, Atahualpa, the last Inca emperor, was ordered assassinated by the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro. His death signaled the end of the Inca empire and the beginning of a ruthless Spanish rule.
Guest   Thu Jan 15, 2009 5:15 pm GMT
That source does not provide the percentage of indigenous speakers in Peru and Bolivia as only says "10 to 13 millions" of Quechua speakers in South America. South America has 500 millions. Anyway I would not give much credit to "quechuanetwork" . Those numbers may be exaggerated and politically manipulated.
According to the German Wikipedia there are 3,2 millions of Quechua speakers in Peru. This is around 10% of population , what makes them a minority in absolute terms.
anyway   Thu Jan 15, 2009 5:34 pm GMT
ANYWAY, Spanish is not expanding.
Cultural richness   Thu Jan 15, 2009 6:43 pm GMT
anyway I know. Stop everybody saying nonsenses. I like the mixture between languages. Spanish has influenced those languages and viceversa.
You can see how they don't have any problem switching these languages iin their conversation, music,etc.

It's a pity that many spaniards don't understand that indegenous languages are in the veins of spanish in the same way as spanish is in their languages.
Puto   Thu Jan 15, 2009 7:14 pm GMT
.. and who's talking about that? we're talking about how the Franchies keep making lies about the Spanish language dying out in South America... and when you show them how stupid those claims are, they run away like the bitches they are.
Who's talking about Frenc   Thu Jan 15, 2009 7:40 pm GMT
ANYWAY, Spanish is not expanding.
Guest   Thu Jan 15, 2009 7:45 pm GMT
Spanish is expanding because Quecua , Aimara , etc are endangered languages as their speakers migrate to cities to seek job and speak Spanish only. Also Spanish is expanding in USA very fast, in Philippines, in France and Morocco.
shiv   Thu Jan 15, 2009 10:14 pm GMT
I agree with Guest. The francophones can't give any proof to the their claim that hispanics are changing data. They keep making these claims because they are desperate.

Here is why the francophile arguement for Latin America doesn't work:

Bottomline, Spanish is the language of the VAST MAJORITY of the people in Latin America (besides Brazil of course). Paraguay and Boliva have the hightest percentage of native Indian language speakers...but they are also two of the smaller countries in LA, under 10 million each. So statistically it doesn't hurt Spanish. And besides many of the people there do speak Spanish either natively or are bilingual through education.

I could make similar claims about the use of native languages in "French Africa".


So Visitor, quit wasting valuable minutes or hours of your life looking up obscure articles about Spanish. Why don't you spend that time studying Spanish instead. Who knows, you might actually like it. ;)
Invitado   Fri Jan 16, 2009 12:40 am GMT
Hola Majo! Tu sigue con tus extrañas teorías sobre el quechua.

Le dedico al francés fanático un par de páginas:

- El español en Alemania es estudiado por más de 15 millones de alemanes (19% de la población), y la tendencia es creciente. El español es probablemente ya el segundo más estudiado de Alemania, tras el inglés.

- Casi 50 millones hablan español en Estados Unidos. Se suman los hispanos ilegales, Puerto Rico (4 millones) y los estudiantes de español en USA (unos 6 millones). Es ya el segundo país con más hispanos, tras Mexico.