ending with "d/ed"

raisingfink   Tuesday, February 17, 2004, 00:31 GMT
"She is tired" and "She was tired". Can anyone explain the usage of "d" in both sentences. I know that the second is simple past tense. But the first is simple present. So, why the "d"? Is there a term for it? I notice that the word "smitten" does not end with "d/ed" in both instances. Is there a "formula" that can help me identify which words that end with "d/ed" particularly when in simple present tense.
Other examples:
1) She is exhausted.
3) They are overwhelmed.
4) He is outnumbered.
raisingfink   Tuesday, February 17, 2004, 01:02 GMT
Sorry, is that "usage" or "use"?
Ryan   Tuesday, February 17, 2004, 02:54 GMT
I think the connotation is that she "is in the state of" having been tired. The opposite would be "She is energized," which would have a similar meaning of "she is in a state of having been given energy somehow."

Smitten is an irregular past tense verbal adjective that has no real present tense. It might come from the verb "to smite," but I'm not sure.
mjd   Tuesday, February 17, 2004, 04:52 GMT
Yeah, Ryan's example: "in the state of" is a good way to think of this.

"He is bored/tired/fatigued/perplexed etc. etc."
Jim   Tuesday, February 17, 2004, 07:52 GMT
You're using the past participle form of the verb as an adjective. I hope that explains things.



I am tired, angry and smitten.
I was tired, angry and smitten.
I've been tired, angry and smitten.
raisingfink   Tuesday, February 17, 2004, 08:20 GMT
Does this mean that we use the past participle of a verb as an adjective to connote 'in the state of' when using the simple present tense?

Is "I am tired, angered and smitten by her remarks" different in meaning to your first sentence?
mjd   Tuesday, February 17, 2004, 08:52 GMT
"I am tired." (I'm tired right now)

"I was tired." (I was tired at some point in the past...maybe this morning, maybe last week etc.)

"I've been tired." (This could be an experience one has had before, for example: 'I've been tired before. I know how it feels.' OR This could explain how one is feeling lately: 'I've been very tired for the last couple of weeks.')

The past participle is used as an adjective. Just take a look:

"The math problem perplexed the young student."
"The student was perplexed by the difficult problem."
Myriescence   Tuesday, February 17, 2004, 12:56 GMT
It's the passive mood. The one who would normally be the object of the sentence is here the subject.
Tsama   Tuesday, February 17, 2004, 18:11 GMT

Look, when you say: she is tired or she was tired, the word tired is your adjective which describes someone's state.

So, for understanding it very well, translate the phrase in your own language. On the other hand, take a look in your grammar book.
Adam   Wednesday, February 18, 2004, 00:22 GMT
The world "tired" isn't "tire" with D added to it. It is "ed" added to it, and the E in "tire" is taken away. It is always "ed" added to words, not just "d".
raisingfink   Thursday, February 19, 2004, 00:23 GMT
yes. Thank you. That was careless of me.