Thoughts for serious language learners
The Antimoon Blog header image

Grammar rules update

I have rewritten my article on grammar rules. The new article shares almost no text with the old version (except the introduction). Overall, the advice hasn’t changed that much (spoiler: it’s okay to use grammar rules, but only a little). However, the reasoning is improved and there are many more examples. The new version also answers the following questions:

  • Where do grammar rules come from? How do they differ from the rules of formal systems like programming languages?
  • Can grammar rules describe a language completely?
  • Are there any good ways to use grammar rules?

Why you shouldn’t rely on grammar rules

→ 1 CommentTags:

Why it’s so difficult to speak English without mistakes

In a new page, “Using English correctly requires a massive amount of knowledge”, I carpet-bomb you with examples showing why speaking English without mistakes is so damn hard, and why vocabulary and so-called “grammar” are just a small part of the stuff that you have to put in your head.

Why is it so difficult to learn a language? The main reason is that speaking a language correctly requires a vast amount of knowledge – far greater than is necessary to be a competent doctor or lawyer. A large chunk of this knowledge is, of course, vocabulary. To speak English fluently, you have to know the meanings and pronunciations of at least 10,000 words and phrases (for comparison, the average college student in the US knows about 20,000 words).

But while most learners realize vocabulary is a major area that requires a lot of attention, fewer are aware that there is an equally large body of facts that is described with the word usage.

Read more

→ 15 CommentsTags:

Things you should know about phonetic transcription

It is natural to assume that phonetic transcriptions are precise instructions on how to pronounce English words. I remember a time when I thought so, too. Over the years, I have realized that they are more like statistics: they can lie, and when they don’t lie, they don’t tell the whole truth.

In my new article (complete with audio recordings), I explain why phonetic transcriptions don’t give you the whole picture and can even be harmful if you take them too literally.

Read more in: “Things you should know about phonetic transcription

→ 3 CommentsTags:

English pronunciation is a minefield

Many languages have sensible writing systems. If you look at a Spanish, German or Italian word, you can tell how to pronounce it – all you need to know is a handful of basic rules. But English is not one of those languages. English words with almost identical spellings often have different pronunciations, so looking at a word’s spelling doesn’t tell you very much.

In my new article, I try to pinpoint why English pronunciation is so difficult that even native speakers occasionally get in trouble. I put on a horror show of tricky pronunciation examples that will make you abandon all hope of learning to speak English without mistakes. Finally, I offer a ray of hope as I explain what you can do to survive.

Read more in “English pronunciation is a minefield — here’s how to survive

→ 2 CommentsTags:

Why it’s important to learn about the sounds of English

Hi! In the first of the promised updates, I take another look at the fact that English uses different sounds than your native language. It turns out that learning to distinguish between the sounds of English is not just something which helps you understand spoken English and to be understood when you speak. If your brain is not phonetically trained, you’re not using your English input fully.

The article includes audio examples and a brief explanation of why certain sounds seem different while others seem similar.

Read more in “Why it’s important to learn about the sounds of English

→ No CommentsTags:

Modernizing Antimoon

Hello Readers! I’ve recently gotten around to making a few much-needed technical updates to Antimoon. Here’s the list of the most important changes:

  • Click / tap / point cursor at any highlighted words to get a pop-up explanation (with additional links to online dictionaries). (Try it right now!)
  • Select any word or phrase to get a popup with links to the best online dictionaries, enabling you to quickly look it up. (Try selecting something.)
  • Completely new audio links and audio player code built around HTML5 and SoundManager — does not require Flash, works great on mobile devices. (Examples of new audio links and new audio player)
  • Wider layout for more comfortable reading of articles. More space for sidenotes (of which there are many) and large images.
  • Responsive layout for mobile devices (including blog, forum and wiki pages). Antimoon now works pretty damn well on tablets – in fact, probably the best way to read this site is sitting in an armchair, holding a tablet. As for smaller devices like smartphones… well, it works as well as it can. You’re not going to get great reading experience on a 5-inch screen anyway.
  • Much faster performance on blog pages and translation wiki, thanks to: optimized templates with fewer HTTP requests, optimized image size, database tuning, PHP cache & updated software.
  • A bunch of audio files have been re-recorded on new equipment for better quality.

New articles coming soon.

→ No CommentsTags:

YouGlish: A YouTube-based pronunciation dictionary

What do you do when you’re not sure how to pronounce an English word? You look it up in a dictionary. But what if you can’t find it in a dictionary because it’s a rare word like azure, a derived form like walked, a proper name like San Rafael, or a technical term like JSON? Until now, there were two options:

  1. Pronunciation dictionary. This works for 90% of words.
  2. Forvo. This has the advantage of giving you authentic pronunciations free from possible biases.

I was recently made aware of a third option – a website called, designed by Dan Barhen. How does it work? There’s a huge mass of content available on YouTube. Some YouTube videos include transcripts. YouGlish lets you search those transcripts. Type a word, press Enter, and you get a video where someone is saying that word. The video will automatically start from the relevant sentence, so there’s no need to look for the right place. If you want more examples of your word being pronounced, simply click the big arrow button to go the next video result. You can also easily replay your sentence. It’s a very nice interface for browsing examples or real-life speech and congratulations are due to Dan for making it work so smoothly.

[

→ 4 CommentsTags:

Antimoon en español

I’m still trying to get over a message I received from Santiago Madrigal, a user from Colombia, who wrote in to share some news about the Antimoon Translation wiki, the part of Antimoon where users contribute their translations of selected Antimoon content. Santiago was disappointed to see that the Spanish section of the wiki had only four articles and a half, so he made himself a large cup of presumably Colombian coffee and translated 96½ more – a number that any reasonable person would consider a misprint. I can, however, confirm that the total for the Spanish wiki is now 101 – an absolutely unreasonable number which is five times the figure for the next biggest wiki language, Portuguese. In today’s Twitter-dominated world, merely reading a hundred articles could be considered an achievement worthy of a trophy and a commemorative plaque, but Santiago not only read them (hopefully), but also rendered them in Spanish. I’m usually the last to suggest violent solutions, but I’m beginning to think the rest of humanity should find a way to discreetly get rid of Santiago because he makes us all look lazy. I mean, who does he think he is?

Anyway, if you have Spanish-speaking amigos who keep asking you “¿Cómo aprender inglés?“, do them a favor and point them to the Spanish wiki.

→ 3 CommentsTags:

Confusing American phonetic transcriptions for “air”, “near” and “sure”

Ilian writes:

(…) There are different types of transcriptions for American English (and for British English). All of this is confusing because I am not absolutely sure whether they describe one and the same pronunciation or they describe different pronunciations.
For instance, the word “air” in American dictionaries is transcribed in many ways:
1. /ɛər/ (this transcription is clear: it means that there is a schwa sound and the “r” sound is pronounced)
2. /ɛr/ (this transcription is not very clear to me: is the pronunciation the same as the transcription above or does it mean that the schwa sound is omitted/deleted/?)
I have noticed that a lot of American dictionaries use the /ɛr/ transcription. Do they mean that the schwa sound is omitted or does it mean that /ɛr/ is the same as /ɛər/?
Also, in different dictionaries the word “near” is transcribed as /nɪər/, /nɪr/ and /ni:r/). Do they mean the same thing?
And in different dictionaries the word “sure” is transcribed as /ʃʊər/, /ʃʊr/ and /ʃu:r/. Do they mean the same thing?

[

→ 8 CommentsTags:

Should you care about phonetic transcrip­tions?

Today, nearly all good English dictionaries have audio recordings. If you can listen to any English word as it is pronounced by a native speaker, why should you care about phonetic transcriptions? My latest update gives a few good reasons.

I’ve also added a section that describes why you shouldn’t take phonetic transcriptions too seriously.

→ 4 CommentsTags:

Solving the problem of typing foreign characters and phonetic symbols on a PC

typeit icon on desktopˈgʊd ˈnjuːz ˈevriwʌn! I just typed this directly into this blog post, using my new TypeIt App for Windows.

Ever since I started learning foreign languages, typing foreign characters and phonetic symbols has been a problem. When learning German, I had a problem with ä, ö, ü and ß; with English, an even bigger problem with IPA phonetic symbols. In order to use phonetic transcriptions in my SuperMemo collection in DOS, I had to design my own IPA screen font.

Today, of course, we have Unicode and the problem is largely solved on the fonts side: if you use a popular font, you can be sure it will include characters for practically all languages. Even more amazingly, all modern operating systems have at least one good font with a full set of IPA symbols.

But there is also the keyboard side. The characters are available, all right, but typing them comfortably is another matter.

[

→ 13 CommentsTags:

Cheap way to get the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE)

I recently learned that The Book Depository (a British online bookstore recently acquired by Amazon) has the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English for about $24 with free worldwide delivery. This is the lowest price, online or offline, that I’ve seen for this excellent dictionary. Note that for this price you get the DVD only (no paper book). But who has the time to leaf through a huge book, right?

Of course, the first thing you should do after installing the LDOCE is download Taku Fukada’s unbelievable LDOCE5 Viewer which will turn your LDOCE from mediocre to amazing.

If you also need the book version for some reason, The Book Depository has the paperback+DVD for about $44 (free worldwide delivery). has it for £23.79 (about $37) but delivery is not free, so it would probably end up costing more. (However, has free delivery to some European countries if your order comes to more than £25, so you could order something else in addition to the LDOCE in order to qualify for free shipping.)

Thanks to commenter “michau” for the tip about The Book Depository.

→ 4 CommentsTags:

LDOCE5 Viewer is now free!

Taku Fukada’s fantastic viewer app for the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE) is now available for free. Now even pathological misers who won’t spend five dollars on an awesome app can get one!

→ 55 CommentsTags:

Transcribing modern RP

Many of you know that the phonetic transcriptions that you can see in any modern British dictionary represent an accent called Received Pronunciation (RP). RP is, broadly speaking, the kind of accent that you have if your family has a coat of arms and an estate in Kent, or, at the very least, if you went to Oxford or Cambridge.

To describe RP pronunciations of words, dictionaries use a transcription system based on symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The system was developed by Daniel Jones in the early 20th century; the last significant change to this system occurred in 1967 when A. C. Gimson took on the job of editor of the English Pronouncing Dictionary.

Did you catch that date – 1967? That’s 46 years ago. But accents evolve all the time. The British upper classes speak differently than they did in the 1960s. Yet the transcription system has remained virtually unchanged.

[

→ 3 CommentsTags:

Another learner report

Kamil Oleksiak, a second-year student of English, is using the Antimoon Method to learn English. He was nice enough to share his experiences with Antimoon readers.

→ 3 CommentsTags:

The Year of English

Aaron Knight (the author of PhraseMix) has launched a new initiative called “Year of English”. You enter your e-mail address to commit yourself to becoming fluent in English in 2013. Every day in 2013, you will receive a newsletter with lessons, advice and assignments.

Of course, I know that it’s hard to start learning English every day. To pull it off, you have to get pretty excited about English – more excited than you are about other things you do, like checking Facebook 50 times a day. Still, sometimes we need a nudge in the right direction; a daily reminder can also help you stay on track.

→ 3 CommentsTags:

How well do Antimoon visitors know the pronunciation of basic English words?

In September 2010, I published Test your English pronunciation, a 10-question quiz which tests your knowledge of the basics of English pronunciation. Today, we’re going to look at the results. How well do Antimoon visitors know basic pronunciation?

[

→ 17 CommentsTags:

What to read when you’re a beginner?

I’ve updated my reading recommendations for beginners with links to some great detective stories and my experiences learning German with simplified books (also known as “learner literature” or “graded readers”).

→ 6 CommentsTags:

Report from a beginner learner

Arkadiusz, who recently asked me a question about listening to two different dialects of English at the same time, has sent me a brief report on his experiences with the Antimoon Method. For a long time, I’ve been thinking about publishing more learner reports on Antimoon – not just reports from successful learners, but also people who are just starting to learn English seriously. It can be quite motivating to read about other people’s progress – perhaps more motivating than reading “you should do this” and “you should do that”…

So, I’ve decided to publish his short report. Hopefully, I’ll be able to publish some other learner feedback that has been lying around in my e-mail archive. Anyway, here’s the report:

Learner reports: Arkadiusz K.


→ 1 CommentTags:

Can listening to American and British English at the same time be harmful?

Arkadiusz writes (and I translate):

I’ve started learning English with the Antimoon Method. After a very short time (just two months), I can already see considerable progress, which motivates me to keep working. I have a question about input. I use various sources: some of them American (mostly cartoons and TV series), some of them British (podcasts, radio). Can mixing two different kinds of English be harmful? Should I concentrate on just one dialect of English?

The only risk I can see is that you could pick up a “mid Atlantic” accent (a mixture of British and American pronunciation). This shouldn’t be a problem in any serious sense of the word, but if you’re interested in having a pure RP or GenAm accent, you should learn about the differences between British and American pronunciation (individual sounds and word pronunciations) and pay attention to those differences as you listen to content. This should help your brain keep the two pronunciation models separate.

→ 10 CommentsTags: