I heard a lot of 'gosh' and some 'bugger' in New York University I was visiting last month. I thought the words were kind of exclusively British.
Is this the university campus feature?
"Gosh" certainly isn't exclusively British...you'll hear it as a euphemism for "God" (ex. "oh gosh) among some people.
Saying God casually is a Christian sin, so in the days when people were more serious about this kind of thing, they came up with nonsense curse words to replace the actual word God (gosh, golly etc.). The so-called Cockney classic "cor blimey" is just such a euphemism and comes from "God, blind me" (also appears as gor blimey). As these are mostly from many hundred years ago, it is not suprising that they exist in America too.
My Grandmother says "gosh" all the time, as do a lot of older people, but I don't think it's terribly common with the younger set, (at least not ones I know). I use "bugger" quite a bit, but it bothers my mother.
to say Bugger as an interjection, when you are frustrated or something goes badly wrong, is British usage. Similarly "all buggered up".
American still use bugger for its original sexual meaning, and would say,
"fucked up" to indicate something is screwed up or messed up.
Sex is blamed for a lot of Chaos and Trouble in the Anglo-saxon world, eh?